Background: Obesity is related to cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) such as dyslipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension, which increase mortality. Basic lipid determinations could underestimate the true atherogenic risk of patients and the impact of bariatric surgery. The objective of the study is to demonstrate the change in the advanced molecular profile of lipoproteins determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in plasma after bariatric surgery, thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Material and methods: Descriptive, observational, and prospective study in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Advanced lipid profile was analyzed in plasma from the immediate preoperative period and at the 18th postoperative month by sending samples and performing plasma magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the BiosferTreslab® laboratory.

Results: Fifty-two patients were included. Average age of 46.3 years; 63.46% were women, 36.54% men. The average BMI was 43.57; the abdominal perimeter 133.50 cm; 32.6% were diabetics under medical treatment, 44.23% hypertensive, and 19.23% smokers; 86.53% of the patients presented alterations in at least one of the analytical parameters in the lipid study. Twenty-nine (55.7%) underwent banded gastric bypass (PGB), 19.23% underwent GBP, and 17.31% vertical gastrectomy. The rest were revision surgeries, two BPG-A and two biliopancreatic diversions after GV. All patients presented some improvement in advanced molecular profile of lipoproteins. Twenty percent of the patients normalized all the parameters.

Conclusions: Bariatric surgery improves advanced molecular profile of lipoproteins, decreasing CVRF. Analysis of the characteristics of lipoprotein particles by NMR spectrometry is optimal for studying lipoprotein metabolism in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.