Background: LDL-C lowering is the main measure in cardiovascular disease prevention but a residual risk of ischemic events still remains. Alterations of lipoproteins, specially, increase in small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles are related to this risk. 

Objective: To investigate the potential use of sdLDL cholesterol concentration (sdLDL-C) isolated by an easy precipitation method and to assess the impact of a set of clinical and biochemical variables determined by NMR on sdLDL concentration. 

Methods: sdLDL-C and NMR lipid profile were performed in 85 men samples. Association among them was evaluated using Pearson coefficients (rxy ). A multivariate regression was performed to identify the influence of NMR variables on sdLDL-C. 

Results: A strong association between sdLDL-C and LDLLDL-P (rxy = 0.687) and with LDL-Z (rxy = -0.603) was found. The multivariate regression explained a 56.8% in sdLDL-C variation (P = 8.77.10-12). BMI, ApoB, triglycerides, FFA, and LDL-Z showed a significant contribution. The most important ones were ApoB and LDL-Z; a 1nm increase (LDL-Z) leads to decrease 126 nmol/L in sdLDL-C. 

Conclusion: The association between sdLDL-C, LDL-Z, and LDL-P is clear. From a large number of variables, especially LDL-Z and apoB influence on sdLDL-C. Results show that the smaller the LDL size, the higher their cholesterol concentration. Therefore, sdLDL-C determination by using this easy method would be useful to risk stratification and to uncover cardiovascular residual risk.