The progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) primary progressive MS (PPMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) are clinically distinguished by the rate at which symptoms worsen. Little is however known about the pathological mechanisms underlying the differential rate of accumulation of pathological changes. In this study, 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to measure low-molecular-weight metabolites in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of PPMS, SPMS, and control patients, as well as to determine lipoproteins and glycoproteins in serum samples. Additionally, neurodegenerative and inflammatory markers, neurofilament light (NFL) and chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1), and the concentration of seven metal elements, Mg, Mn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, and Ca, were also determined in both CSF and serum. The results indicate that the pathological changes associated with progressive MS are mainly localized in the central nervous system (CNS). More so, PPMS and SPMS patients with comparable disability status are pathologically similar in relation to neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, and some metabolites that distinguish them from controls. However, the rapid progression of PPMS from the onset may be driven by a combination of neurotoxicity induced by heavy metals coupled with diminished CNS antioxidative capacity associated with differential intrathecal ascorbate retention and imbalance of Mg and Cu.