Patients with morbid obesity frequently present non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) associated with pro-atherogenic alterations. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective treatment for weight reduction, and for the remission of hepatic alterations. Using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), we investigated the effects of LSG on lipoprotein and glycoprotein profile in patients with morbid obesity and liver disease. We included 154 patients with morbid obesity (49 non-NASH, 54 uncertain NASH, 51 definite NASH). A blood sample was obtained before surgery and, in patients with definite NASH, one year after surgery. Patients with NASH had increased concentrations of medium and small VLDL particles, VLDL and IDL cholesterol concentrations, IDL, LDL, and HDL triglyceride concentrations, and elevated glycoprotein levels. These changes were more marked in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. LSG produced significant decreases in the concentration of VLDL particles, VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides, an increase in the concentration LDL particles and LDL cholesterol concentrations, and a decrease in protein glycation. We conclude that patients with obesity and NASH had significant alterations in circulating levels of lipoproteins and glycoproteins that were associated with the severity of the disease. Most of these changes were reversed post-LSG.