The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women in reproductive age. Obesity and low-grade chronic inflammation are frequently associated with PCOS. Recently, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR)-derived glycoprotein profiles have emerged as potential biomarkers that reflect systemic inflammation in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other pathological processes. The aim of this work is to study plasma glycoprotein profiles as metabolic/inflammatory biomarkers underlying PCOS and its association with inflammation and obesity. We used 1H-NMR spectroscopy to study five glycoprotein variables, namely GlycA, GlycB, and GlycF and the height-to-width (H/W) ratio of GlycA and GlycB, in 17 women with PCOS (9 non-obese and 8 obese), 17 control women (9 non-obese and 8 obese), and 19 healthy men (10 non-obese and 9 obese). H/W ratios of GlycA and GlycB, but not glycoprotein areas, were specifically associated with PCOS independently of obesity. When considered as a whole, obese subjects presented higher GlycA, GlycB, and GlycF areas and higher H/W GlycA and GlycB ratios than their non-obese counterparts. All glycoprotein variables were associated with hsCRP, IL-6, and TNF-α, showing different correlations among PCOS, women, and men. Our present exploratory results suggest that 1H-NMR-derived glycoprotein profiles might serve as novel diagnostic markers of low-grade chronic inflammation in women with PCOS.