The prevalence of obesity and its associated health risks, notably cardiovascular risk (CVD), is a global health concern. 

The interplay between obesity and cardiovascular diseases constitutes a complex health dilemma, with dyslipidemia acting as a pivotal contributor to the heightened cardiovascular risk observed in obese individuals. 

Dyslipidemia, characterized by an adverse lipid profile that typically includes elevated levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, significantly escalates the risk of developing atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases.

Bariatric surgery is highly effective, not only for weight loss but also for correcting dysregulated lipid metabolism in obesity. The improvements in lipid profiles post-surgery, including reductions in total and LDL cholesterol alongside increases in HDL cholesterol, illuminate the surgery’s pivotal role in ameliorating dyslipidemia. This lipid profile optimization is crucial for mitigating the atherogenic risk, thus substantially diminishing the long-term risk of cardiovascular diseases.

The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery on lipid metabolism are multifaceted, involving both weight loss-dependent and weight loss-independent pathways. Weight loss following bariatric surgery contributes to the reduction of insulin resistance, a common condition in obesity that exacerbates dyslipidemia by increasing the production of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and decreasing the clearance of LDL cholesterol. 

Moreover, bariatric surgery induces changes in gut hormones and bile acid metabolism, which further contribute to the improvement in lipid profiles by enhancing the clearance of triglycerides and increasing LDL receptor expression, thereby facilitating the removal of LDL cholesterol from the circulation.

Bariatric procedures, specifically Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB) and Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG), have been systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed for their effects on dyslipidemia. Findings highlight a significant improvement in lipid profiles post-surgery, with LRYGB showing a more pronounced benefit in the resolution or improvement of dyslipidemia compared to LSG.

In that sense, the role of metabolomics through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy emerges as a pivotal advancement in precisely characterizing cardiovascular risk. This innovative approach allows for a comprehensive analysis of lipidic and metabolic profiles, offering a deeper insight into the biochemical changes following bariatric surgery.

By accurately identifying metabolic biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risks, NMR metabolomics enhances our ability to predict, monitor, and optimize patient outcomes, further illuminating the path towards targeted and effective management of cardiovascular health in the context of obesity and dyslipidemia.

The evidence underscores the need for a comprehensive evaluation of obese patients, considering bariatric surgery not only as an intervention for weight loss but also as a strategic measure to combat dyslipidemia and reduce cardiovascular risk. 

As obesity continues to be a leading cause of preventable death worldwide, understanding and utilizing the benefits of bariatric surgery can lead to more effective management and prevention strategies for at-risk individuals.



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