Background: Subjects with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have an increased incidence of heart failure (HF). Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been involved in its development. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential contribution of the advanced lipoprotein profile and plasma glycosylation (GlycA) to the presence of subclinical myocardial dysfunction in subjects with T1DM.
Methods: We included subjects from a Danish cohort of T1DM subjects (Thousand & 1 study) with either diastolic and/or systolic subclinical myocardial dysfunction, and a control group without myocardial dysfunction, matched by age, sex and HbA1c. All underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram and an advanced lipoprotein profile obtained by using the NMR-based Liposcale® test. GlycA NMR signal was also analyzed. Systolic dysfunction was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 45% and diastolic dysfunction was considered as E/e’≥12 or E/e’ 8-12 + volume of the left atrium > 34 ml/m2. To identify a metabolic profile associated with the presence of subclinical myocardial dysfunction, a multivariate supervised model of classification based on least squares regression (PLS-DA regression) was performed.
Results: One-hundred forty-six subjects had diastolic dysfunction and 18 systolic dysfunctions. Compared to the control group, patients with myocardial dysfunction had longer duration of diabetes (p = 0.005), and higher BMI (p = 0.013), serum NTproBNP concentration (p = 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), albuminuria (p < 0.001), and incidence of advanced retinopathy (p < 0.001). The supervised classification model identified a specific pattern associated with myocardial dysfunction, with a capacity to discriminate patients with myocardial dysfunction from controls. PLS-DA showed that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs), such as VLDL (total VLDL particles, large VLDL subclass and VLDL-TG content) and IDL (IDL cholesterol content), as well as the plasma concentration of GlycA, were associated with the presence of subclinical myocardial dysfunction.
Conclusion: Proatherogenic TGRLs and the proinflammatory biomarker Glyc A are strongly associated to myocardial dysfunction in T1DM. These findings suggest a pivotal role of TGRLs and systemic inflammation in the development of subclinical myocardial dysfunction in T1DM.