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Biomarkers of stable and decompensated phases of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a disorder related to patient comorbidities and aging. Whether mitochondrial dysfunction is present during HFpEF decompensation versus the stable phase is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to identify mitochondrial and cell metabolism blood biomarkers in older patients with acute and stable HFpEF.

Methods: Peripheral blood biomarkers were investigated in a group of eight to 12 patients aged 80-96 years and diagnosed with HFpEF first when they were in decompensated phase and then at least three months later in stable phase. Their data were compared to two control groups with an equal number of participants and sex proportions. One group was age matched and the other included individuals aged between 22 and 44 years.

Results: Decompensated patients experienced an increased mitochondrial superoxide production and mitochondrial mass, lower mitochondrial DNA copy number and LDHB expression, and higher lactate level compared to the stable stage. The stable phase was characterized by a sharp reduction in formate level. Multivariate analysis indicated that formate, lactate, and histidine can distinguish both of the HFpEF phases. Many of these parameters, including LDHB, lactate, formate, and mitochondrial mass, followed an age-related pattern, with acute HFpEF at its apex or nadir, suggesting that it represents an exacerbation of an aging-related process.

Conclusions: We identified distinct blood biomarkers of chronic and decompensated HFpEF phases. The data underlined the relationship between HFpEF and aging. These findings could be used to monitor patients and might be therapeutically targeted.