Skip to content

Glycoprotein Profile Measured by a 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Based on Approach in Patients with Diabetes: A New Robust Method to Assess Inflammation

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), so an interest in discovering inflammation biomarkers as indicators of processes related to CVD progression is increasing. This study aims (a) to characterize the plasma glycoprotein profile of a cohort of 504 participants, including patients with and without T2DM and/or AD and controls, and (b) to study the associations between the glycoprotein profile and other lipid and clinical variables in these populations. We characterized the plasma glycoprotein profiles by using 1H-NMR. We quantified the two peaks associated with the concentration of plasma glycoproteins (GlycA and GlycB) and their height/width ratios (H/W GlycA and H/W GlycB), as higher and narrower signals have been related to inflammation. We also quantified GlycF, the signal of which is proportional to the concentration of the acetyl groups of free N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, and N-acetylneuraminic in the samples. The lipoprotein profile was also determined (Liposcale®). Standard clinical and anthropometric measurements were taken. Multivariate classification models were developed to study the differences between the study groups. Reduced HDL-C levels, increased small dense LDL and HDL particles, and elevated TG levels were significantly associated with glycoprotein variables. Glycoprotein values in the diagnostic groups were significantly different from those in the CT groups. AD and DM conditions together contribute to a positive and significant synergetic effect on the GlycA area (<0.05) and the H/W ratios of GlycA (<0.01) and GlycB (<0.05). By adding the new glycoprotein variables to the traditionally used marker of inflammation C-reactive protein (CRP), the AUC increased sharply for classification models between the CT group and the rest (0.68 to 0.84), patients with and without dyslipidemia (0.54 to 0.86), and between patients with and without diabetes (0.55 to 0.75). 1H-NMR-derived glycoproteins can be used as possible markers of the degree of inflammation associated with T2DM and AD.

Tags: