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GlycA and GlycB as Inflammatory Markers in Chronic Heart Failure

The role of inflammation in heart failure (HF) has been extensively described, but it is uncertain whether inflammation exerts a different prognostic influence according to etiology. We aimed to examine the inflammatory state in chronic HF by measuring N-acetylglucosamine/galactosamine (GlycA) and sialic acid (GlycB), evolving proton nuclear magnetic resonance biomarkers of systemic inflammation, and explore their prognostic value in patients with chronic HF. The primary end point was a composite of all-cause death and HF readmission. A total of 429 patients were included. GlycB correlated with interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 in the whole cohort (r2 = 0.14, p = 0.011) and the subgroup of nonischemic etiology (r2 = 0.31, p <0.001). No association was found with New York Heart Association functional class or left ventricular ejection fraction. In patients with nonischemic HF (52.2%, n = 224), GlycA and GlycB exhibited significant association with the composite end point (hazard ratio [HR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.33, p = 0.004 and HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.43 to 3.13, p <0.001; respectively) and GlycB with HF readmission after multivariable adjustment (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.54 to 3.30, p <0.001). GlycB levels were also associated with a greater risk of HF-related recurrent admissions (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.33, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.65, p = 0.009). None of the markers were associated with the clinical end points in patients with ischemic HF. In conclusion, GlycA and GlycB represent an evolving approach to inflammation status with prognostic value in long-term outcomes in patients with nonischemic HF.