Changes in the lifestyle of developed and emerging countries favor the exponential appearance of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, among others. The appearance of these disorders has drastically increased the number of cardiovascular accidents, placing cardiovascular diseases as the leading cause of death worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, in 2015 there were 17.7 million deaths related to cardiovascular diseases, which accounted for 31% of all deaths worldwide.
Traditionally, the prediction of cardiovascular risk has been based on the analysis, among others, of a basic lipid profile, associating a high concentration of cholesterol transported by LDL or a low concentration of cholesterol transported by HDL to an increased risk of suffering a cardiovascular event . However, recent studies have shown that the classic parameter to assess cardiovascular risk, LDL (or bad) cholesterol, does not explain all cases of cardiovascular disease. It is estimated that 50% of cardiovascular accidents occur in individuals with normal levels of “bad” cholesterol or LDL.
In this context, the advanced characterization of lipoproteins, glycoproteins and low molecular weight metabolites associated with risk, complemented by the lipid profile, is of great help for the diagnosis and monitoring of pathologies related to disorders of metabolism, allowing the evaluation of the health status of patients with metabolic disorders and inflammatory processes, individuals with a higher risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular accidents.